ubuntu下apt-get 命令参数

ubuntu下apt-get 常用的命令参数

  apt-cache search package 搜索包
  apt-cache show package 获取包的相关信息,如说明、大小、版本等
  sudo apt-get install package 安装包
  sudo apt-get install package - - reinstall 重新安装包
  sudo apt-get -f install 修复安装"-f = ――fix-missing"
  sudo apt-get remove package 删除包
  sudo apt-get remove package - - purge 删除包,包括删除配置文件等
  sudo apt-get update 更新源
  sudo apt-get upgrade 更新已安装的包
  sudo apt-get dist-upgrade 升级系统
  sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade 使用 dselect 升级
  apt-cache depends package 了解使用依赖
  apt-cache rdepends package 是查看该包被哪些包依赖
  sudo apt-get build-dep package 安装相关的编译环境
  apt-get source package 下载该包的源代码
  sudo apt-get clean && sudo apt-get autoclean 清理无用的包
  sudo apt-get check 检查是否有损坏的依赖
 
在国内使用apt-get速度慢的话,可以修改源为国内的,如阿里的源,修改方法:(注意版本代码,Natty(11.04) ,Precise 是 12.04的代号,Trusty(14.04)
 
1、复制原文件备份
sudo cp /etc/apt/source.list /etc/apt/source.list.bak
 
2、编辑源列表文件
sudo vim /etc/apt/source.list
 
3、将原来的列表删除,添加如下内容,根据自己的版本号筢对应的区块
 
中国科学技术大学源:
Trusty(14.04)
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Quantal(12.10)
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Precise(12.04)
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse IT网,http://www.it.net.cn
Oneiric(11.10)
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Natty(11.04) Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
 
阿里云源:
xenial (16.04)
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse
 
Trusty(14.04)
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Quantal(12.10)
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Precise(12.04)
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Oneiric(11.10)
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
Natty(11.04)
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
 
163源:
 
Trusty(14.04)
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Quantal(12.10)
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Precise(12.04)
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Oneiric(11.10)
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse IT网,http://www.it.net.cn
Natty(11.04)
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
 
sohu源:
 
Trusty(14.04)
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
Quantal(12.10)
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ quantal-backports main restricted universe multiverse IT网,http://www.it.net.cn
Precise(12.04) Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse Linux学习,http:// linux.it.net.cn
Oneiric(11.10)
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Natty(11.04)
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.sohu.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
 
清华大学
xenial (16.04)
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse
 
4、运行sudo apt-get update
5、运行sudo apt-get upgrade

 

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